The street was named after Käthe Niederkirchner, a resistance fighter against the Nazi Regime, in 1951. It became synonymous with the terror of the Nazi-dictatorship because the SS and Gestapo had their headquarters here, beside the Martin-Gropius-Bau. At this "site of the perpetrators", important decisions were made concerning the persecution of political opponents, the "Germanisation" of occupied territories in Poland and the Soviet Union, the murder of Soviet prisoners of war and the genocide of the European Jews. This is where the infamous Special Police Units (Einsatzgruppen) were assembled and where the "Wannsee Conference" was prepared. The Topography of Terror Foundation provides information relating to these issues on site.